The ongoing economic uncertainty and subsequent lack of employment opportunities which various developed nations are currently facing has impacted on the decision of numerous young people to travel outside their country of origin in search of new opportunities.
Australia’s stable economic and low unemployment rate allures the majority of people aged 18 to 35 to our shores. Factors, which usually lead them to this country are directly linked to a desire for self-determination and the ability to put into practice skills, which have been acquired.
Australia granted Visas to more than 20,000 young Italians in the biennium 2012-2014, a record that the last 2 years consistently exceeded the percentage of Italians who immigrated to Australia in 1950-1951. While the first migration occurred mostly after the end of the Second World War and consisted largely of laborers that Australia needed at that time, now the new streams have very different characteristics and are managed differently in the market. Nowadays immigration rules do not always make it easier to stay, # especially for those who intend to settle permanently. Besides, different types of visas will also vary depending on the reasons or needs that motivate young people to travel to Australia.
Tourist Visa subclass 600A temporary visa that allows a maximum stay of up to three months, and meets social reasons, leisure or recreation.Working Holiday Visa subclass 417Used by those aged between 18 and 30 as the initial stage for a longer stay.·16,045 working holiday visas granted to Italian citizens in 2013-2014. An increase of 77.5% the number of the second working holiday visa.Student Visa subclasses 570, 571, 572, 573, 574Frequently used by internationals invited by education institutions to attend a course or school, allowing to remain in Australia for the duration of the course, with the permission to work up to a maximum of 20 hours per week.
The Department of Immigration provides a type of visa that responds to the specific needs of those who do training in a specific area, or carry out scientific research in Australia.
The 402 (Training and Research) visa allows Australian organisations to sponsor people who want to come to Australia on a temporary basis to undertake occupational training, conduct or observe research as a visiting academic or participate in a professional development program. The 402 visa is not a work visa; therefore this is not an appropriate visa for people whose sole intention is to undertake work on a full-time or a part-time basis. It allows you to live and work in Australia for a maximum of two years, and can be renewed. However, the exact period will be determined by reference to the stream under which the applicant is applying and the period of stay required for the applicant to complete their proposed work based training or activity in Australia, as specified in their visa application.
Subclass 402 provides for three streams of entry: 1.Occupational Trainee StreamOccupational Trainee stream is for people who want to improve their occupational skills (including the field of sport) through participation in workplace-based training in Australia with an Australian organisation, government agency or foreign government agency, including:
Training in the workplace that is required to obtain registration to be employed in the occupation of the visa applicantA structured workplace training program tailored to enhance the existing skills of the visa applicant in an eligible occupation orA structured workplace-based training program that promotes capacity building overseasThis type of training is not appropriate for training that is primarily academic in nature.
2.Research StreamObserve or participate in an established Australian research project at an Australian tertiary or research institution.To be eligible for this stream applicant must:
Be sponsored by an Australian tertiary or research institution for this visa.Be employed or have formerly been employed as an academic at a tertiary or research institution outside Australia and hold or have held a senior academic title.Have qualifications and experience for the position.Have evidence of their record of achievement in the field of research.Intend to observe or participate in an established research project in collaboration with other academics at the sponsoring Australian tertiary or research institution and;Will not receive a salary, scholarship or allowance from the sponsoring institution, other than an allowance towards living expenses in Australian and travel costs. To determine whether the level of the proposed allowance towards living expenses is appropriate, the level of salary being received from the home institution and the base level of salary for academic staff at the Australian institution is taken into consideration
3.Professional Development streamProfessional Development stream is for Australian organisations and government agencies, to bring to Australia groups of professionals, managers or government officials from overseas to enhance their professional or managerial skills, by undertaking professional development training that is at least 55% classroom-based rather than workplace-based and who:
Are employed or invited by an overseas employer that is party to a Professional Development Agreement with an Australian organisation.Have managerial or other professional skills relevant to a Professional Development Program formulated by the parties to the Professional Development Agreement and;Are sponsored by an Australian organisation that is a Professional Development Sponsor.